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By L. Ho, R. van Leeuwen, P. T. V. M. de Jong, J. R. Vingerling, C. C. W. Klaver (auth.), Frank G. Holz, Daniel Pauleikhoff, Richard F. Spaide, Alan C. Bird (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3642221068

ISBN-13: 9783642221064

ISBN-10: 3642221076

ISBN-13: 9783642221071

Age-related macular degeneration is the commonest reason for the lack of crucial imaginative and prescient past the age of fifty in commercial international locations. Triplication of the variety of affected sufferers is predicted over the subsequent 25 years. specifically during the last years the traditional of information relating to etiology, danger elements, diagnostics and remedy of this retina disorder has considerably grown – this may be lined during this updated multi-authored paintings. except epidemiologically and genetically pointed out danger elements either many of the pathophysiological facets together with the function of the supplement approach and medical manifestations together with OCT and angiographic features are truly represented. additionally, different healing methods are provided and mentioned, together with confirmed approaches equivalent to intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment and seeing-aid platforms, as well as the most recent and upcoming tools within the zone of pharmacology. the amount is well-illustrated and tables and summaries entire the presentation.

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Extra resources for Age-related Macular Degeneration

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Zareparsi S, Branham KE, Li M et al (2005) Strong association of the Y402H variant in complement factor H at 1q32 with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration. Am J Hum Genet 77(1):149–153 64. Hageman GS, Anderson DH, Johnson LV et al (2005) A common haplotype in the complement regulatory gene factor H (HF1/CFH) predisposes individuals to age-related macular degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(20): 7227–7232 65. Sepp T, Khan JC, Thurlby DA et al (2006) Complement factor H variant Y402H is a major risk determinant for geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularization in smokers and nonsmokers.

9b). 83; Fig. 28; Fig. 9d). The retina has high levels of oxygen, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and light exposure, which may cause oxidative damage and inflammation [198]. Cell damage and inflammation upregulates the influx of cholesterol, [199] but also the synthesis of APOE [200]. The APOE e4 variant inhibits dimerization of APOE that normally occurs with the e3 and e2 variants [201]. Therefore, the APOE e4 travels the interstitium more easily than the other APOE variants which are confined more intracellularly.

2 Antioxidants The only protective factors for AMD known to date are antioxidants. AREDS showed that a combination of zinc, b-carotene, and vitamins C, and E reduced the risk of progression from intermediate to advanced AMD by 25% [34]. The RS found that an above-median intake of these nutrients was associated with a 35% lower risk of incident AMD [269]. 92). 97) for early AMD. 70), respectively [270]. The BDES studied the 5-year incidence of early AMD in relation to antioxidant intake, and did not find an association.

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Age-related Macular Degeneration by L. Ho, R. van Leeuwen, P. T. V. M. de Jong, J. R. Vingerling, C. C. W. Klaver (auth.), Frank G. Holz, Daniel Pauleikhoff, Richard F. Spaide, Alan C. Bird (eds.)

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