By Peter Bruce
The seamanship vintage you will have on-board whilst crusing in tough weather
Adlard Coles' Heavy climate Sailing provide you with professional suggestion for for those who enterprise out of sight of land, no matter if for racing or cruising. It supplies a transparent message of seamanlike layout gains, arrangements, and strategies so you might contemplate opposed to the time while it comes directly to blow. It contains new how-to chapters on hurricane sails, taking safeguard, and handling multihulls in storms, plus exciting new money owed of exact typhoon encounters.
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Extra info for Adlard Coles' Heavy Weather Sailing (6th Edition)
11). As day length and sun angles increase, so do air temperatures, causing snow cover to warm and begin to melt. Snow cover balances the availability of water in mountain environments. Where winter precipitation falls as rain, surface runoff occurs almost immediately. 10: Snow cover provides critical water supplies used for many purposes. (a) Melting of prairie snow cover, seen here in Saskatchewan, Canada, provides spring ponds that are essential for recharge of groundwater and soilwater, for farm water supplies and as spring wetlands for waterfowl migrations through what is otherwise a semi-arid environment.
M. (2006). Atmospheric circulation and its effect on Arctic sea ice in CCM3 simulations at medium and high resolution. J. J. M. (2006). Significant warming of the Antarctic winter troposphere. , and Raenssen, H. (2005). A simulated reduction in Antarctic sea ice since 1750: implications of the long memory of the ocean. Int. J. , 25, 569-579. 14 Limpasuvan, V. L. (2000). Wave-maintained annular modes of climate variability. J. M. and Tremblay, B. (2006). Future abrupt reductions in the summer Arctic sea ice.
Part of the uncertainty around future climates relates to important feedbacks between different parts of the climate system: air temperatures, ice and snow albedo (reflection of the sun’s rays), and clouds. An important positive feedback is the ice and snow albedo feedback (see also Chapters 2, 4 and 5). Sea ice 36 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ICE AND SNOW and snow have high albedo. This means that they reflect most of the solar radiation. With warmer polar temperatures, the area of sea ice and snow cover decreases, exposing new expanses of ocean and land surfaces that absorb an increased amount of solar radiation.
Adlard Coles' Heavy Weather Sailing (6th Edition) by Peter Bruce