By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough experiences ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar stories the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse positive aspects of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o shows many strange typological gains, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our figuring out of the advance of the Uto-Aztecan relations of languages in historic and areal standpoint.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
V OW EL DELETION WITH SUFFIXES . The second context for the deletion of input vowels in word formation arises when suffixes are added to words. Vowel deletion induced by suffixation can be exemplified by forms with derivational suffixes of the shape -we followed by the non-possessed noun suffix -t, followed by plural -m. One of this series of suffixes, the augmentative (seen in (58c), is a grammaticalized reflex of a Proto-Uto-Aztecan (PUA) adjective, *wï ‘big’. Thus the e of -we is probably an input vowel.
While root-initial glottal stops are not written in the practical orthography in word-initial position, they are written, and are easily perceived, following a vowel-final prefix as in (36b), or in CV- reduplication of vowel-initial words as in (37b). 1. Sounds and spelling (36) a. amu ‘will hunt’ b. pe’amu ‘3 S hunted’ (37) a. awelve ‘grown’ b. a’welvem ‘adults, grown up things’ 21 A’welvem, in (37b), is underlyingly /’a-’awelve-m/. 3. , sææis ‘six’, guviæærnu ‘government’, puæænti ‘bridge’ from Spanish seis, gobierno, puente).
As pointed out above, etymological evidence suggests that the vowels in these suffixes are part of the input. Where the suffix vowel has deleted, the vowel before the plural suffix -m will be a. (78) a. b. c. d. 3. Vowel deletion and epenthesis 37 However, if the suffix vowel has not been deleted, the vowel before the plural suffix -m will be i. (79) a. alwet ‘crow’, alwetim ‘crows’ b. iswet ‘wolf’, iswetim ‘wolves’ c. ngiiyqat ‘is gonna go’, ngiiyqatim ‘are gonna go’ In this group of words, deletion of the vowel in -we-t or -qat would have led to a prohibited super-heavy CCC sequence, *alwtim, *iswtim, *ngiiyqtim.
A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Jane H. Hill